Domestic violence includes physical, sexual, psychological and even economical abuse against one or more member of family mostly children and women that has serious psychosocial impacts on their life. During Covid-19 lockdown as officials state it incidents of domestic violence increased dramatically and rise the officials’ attention to employ solution to prevent that. Aim of this study is to consider that this increase of domestic violence should be taken into consideration as a psychosocial outbreak following the Covid-19 lockdown which along with implementing strategies to battle the outbreak of Covid-19 by lockdown needs to gather mental health professionals, legal professionals and authorities and also NGOs around the crises management table to provide special prevention strategies for preventing psychosocial outbreaks of domestic violence which following Covid-19 lockdown epidemiologically observed. Indicating that it seems to be missed in time of developing Covid-19 lockdown decision which from epidemiological point of view that can be derived.
Domestic violence includes broad sorts of violence in a domestic setting and can be in terms of physical, emotional, sexual or even economical abusive behavior (Counsel of Europe, 2013) and targeted against intimate partner, children or other members of family. Physical abuse includes bodily harm and suffering with intention to lead fear, pain, injury (U.S. Department of Justice, 2007). Physical abuse vastly is seen in different types such as homicide which is more seen in female homicide as reported 38% of that committed by an intimate partner (WHO, 2013). Sexual violence defines as acts of including sexual coercion, female genital mutilation, forced marriage and pregnancy (WHO, 2002, 2003). One important type of domestic violence that previously neglected but now mostly in modern societies and legislations is taking into consideration is psychological or emotional abuse. Psychological abuse is such kinds of behavior that includes threatening, intimidating or dehumanizing a person or systematically damaging one self-worth (Follingstad, D. R.; DeHart, D. D, 2000). Psychological abuse often cause to developing more risk of suicide, drug and alcohol abuse (Buttery, V.W, 2006). Another kinds of domestic violence is economical abuse that intending intimate partner to control over partner’s economic allowances (Adams, A.E, et al, 2008) that may lead to lack of employment, social welfare and economical dependency that can have serious consequences of abusive behavior in family such as for example women and children chronic malnutrition in India (Ackerson, L.K.; Subramanian, S.V., 2008). One study shows that women who are abused can develop the risk of psychological problems such as depression, anxiety and Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) along with physical injury, gynecological problems, and complications in pregnancy and childbirth (Goldstein M.L., 2004). Researchers found some underlying biological factors including genetic, brain dysfunction which found by neuroscience (Patrick, C.J., 2008) and also high prevalence of psychopathology (Hamberger, L.K; Hastings, J.E., 1986). Domestic violence in some distressing economical, natural or social situations gets rise like in global financial crisis in 2009 and 2011Christchurch earthquake because of situations that abusers can achieve control over victim’s daily life (Johnson K, 2020). And also latest during Covid-19 lockdown which members of family oblige to spend the time mostly together and following that domestic violence outbreaks.
This paper aims to imply that domestic violence is a psychosocial issue that as a behavioral damaging act has some serious issues in terms of psychologically and sociologically on an individual. In case of situations like Covid-19 lockdown this study wants to rise attentions of mental health professionals, health authorities, legal authorities and professionals to study about and provide strategies that during such as Covid-19 outbreak and following that Covid-19 lockdown along with illness crises management can employ it also in situation of psychosocial outbreak in like Domestic violence in consequences of Covid-19 lockdown.
This study is a kind of qualitative study to describe the situation and derive the answer to question that how domestic violence in Covid-19 lockdown related to psychosocial outbreak.
Scientific articles, books and any documents related to research topic
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Domestic violence and Covid-19 Lockdown
As lockdown employs to prevent spread of Covid-19 by so many countries along the world but it means that the extraordinary situation to spend all of time together by obligation and to be limited in some freedoms which could be achieved in absence of one or more individual during special times. It perceives by so many women and girls as a trapped situation which causing them to confront by their abusive partner or any family members maybe without any source of protection (OJ, 2020). In china, Hubei province police reported the domestic violence more tripled rise during lockdown in February compare to last year in that time (The guardian, 2020). Also in Brazil an specialist in domestic violence judge in Rio De Janeiro stated thinking of a rise of 40-50% of domestic violence during lockdown and call people to be calm in during tackling difficulties (The guardian, 2020). In European Union the problem is same that reported domestic violence rose a third across EU countries (European Parliament, 2020). In UK also during social and distance and lockdown reporting domestic violence increased by 25% (Bradbury-Jones, C, 2020). These are examples of that shows an outbreak of domestic violence occurred during lockdown to prevent Covid-19 outbreak.
Psychosocial Outbreak of Domestic Violence
Every human behavior incidents when reported can be measured in terms of its prevalence across the society. The epidemiological methods are used to study mental and psychosocial disorders by country level (Chope H.D, 1959). Social epidemiology also refers to study impacts of social construction, institutions and relationships on human health (Berkman, L.F.; Kawachi, L, 2014). Domestic violence also has its especial epidemiological study which for example states that women in their life across the world reported 10-65% physical abuse by their partner (WHO, 2011). In this way the increase domestic violence which mentioned above that reported by officials notices the professional to incidence of outbreak in a concern here domestic violence that has psychosocial impacts in human life. By other means it indicates the psychosocial outbreak following Covid-19 lockdown.
Rise of domestic violence around the world just along with calling Covid-19 lockdown indicates that crises management for consequences of Covid-19 outbreak has the lack of forecasting the potential psychosocial issues outbreak as a consequence of Covid-19 lockdown. By indicating domestic violence as a psychosocial issue and the rise of this public health problem could be taken as an outbreak in an epidemiological viewpoint following Covid-19 lockdown. this paper aims to imply that in case of situations like Covid-19 lockdown as Covid-19 is a spreading disease and for prevention of its outbreak health professionals and high level authorities decide to employ lockdown it also needs beside that to gather mental health professionals, health authorities, legal authorities and professionals and also NGOs around the table to provide strategies that during such as Covid-19 outbreak and following that Covid-19 lockdown along with illness crises management can employ it also in situation of psychosocial outbreak like domestic violence in consequences of Covid-19 lockdown.
- Adams, Adrienne E.; Sullivan, Cris M.; Bybee, Deborah; Greeson, Megan R. (May 2008). “Development of the scale of economic abuse”. Violence Against Women. 14 (5): 563–588. doi: 10.1177/1077801208315529. PMID 18408173.
- Berkman, Lisa F.; Kawachi, Ichiro (2014). “A Historical Framework for Social Epidemiology: Social Determinants of Population Health”. In Berkman, Lisa F.; Kawachi, Ichirō; Glymour, M. Maria (eds.). Social Epidemiology. Oxford University Press. pp. 1–16. ISBN 978-0-19-537790-3.
- Bradbury-Jones, K., Isham, L. (2020). The pandemic paradox: The consequences of COVID-19 on domestic violence. Journal of Clinical Nursing.2020 (00), 240-263. DOI: 10.1111/jocn.15296
- Buttery, Vicki W. (biology instructor). “The physical and psychological effects of domestic violence on women”. Faculty.inverhills.edu. Inver Hills Community College. Archived from the original on September 7, 2006. Retrieved June 25, 2012.
- Chope, H.D. (1959, October). Epidemiology in the social sciences. The western Journal of Medicine. 91(4): 189–192. PMID: 13809994
- Follingstad, Diane R.; DeHart, Dana D. (2000, September). “Defining psychological abuse of husbands toward wives: contexts, behaviors, and typologies”. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 15 (9): 891–920. doi:10.1177/088626000015009001.
- Ford, L. (2020, April 28). ‘Calamitous’: domestic violence set to soar by 20% during global lockdown. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2020/apr/28/calamitous-domestic-violence-set-to-soar-by-20-during-global-lockdown-coronavirus
- Goldstein M.L. (2004) Psychosocial Effects of Violence. In: Domestic Violence and Maternal and Child Health. Springer, Boston, MA. pp. 69-83 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-306-48530-5_5
- Hamberger, L. Kevin; Hastings, James E. (1986, December). “Personality correlates of men who abuse their partners: a cross-validation study”. Journal of Family Violence. 1 (4): 323–341. doi: 10.1007/BF00978276.
- Jang, B; Farise, K. (2020). Gender Based Violence during the COVID-19 Pandemic and economic, social and cultural rights. Retrieved from http://opiniojuris.org/2020/04/23/gender-based-violence-during-the-covid-19pandemic-and-economic-social-and-cultural-rights/
- Johnson, Kirsty (2020, April). “Covid 19 coronavirus: Domestic violence is the second, silent epidemic amid lockdown”. NZ Herald. ISSN 1170-0777. Retrieved 2020-04-14.
- Mack, S. (2020, April 06). The surge of domestic violence in China amid COVID-19 lockdowns points to the ineffectiveness of its Anti-Domestic Violence Law. The Diplomat. Retrieved from https://thediplomat.com/2020/04/chinas-hidden-epidemic-domestic-violence/
- The World Health Organization (2011, August 7).World report on violence and health. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/global_campaign/en/chap4.pdf
- U.S Department of Justice (2007). “About domestic violence”. usdoj.gov. U.S. Department of Justice. Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved December 16, 2015.